Many who teach that Christians do not need to obey the ten commandments also teach that the ten commandments were not in effect prior to Mount Sinai (Ex 20). The truth is that all of the ten commandments are listed in the Bible prior to Mount Sinai (please see the article Were the Ten Commandments in Effect Before Mount Sinai?).
Most scholars teach that Job was likely to have been alive around the time of the patriarchs (Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob), thus the subjects in the Book of Job were all known prior to Mount Sinai. Biblical evidence includes the facts that both Job and Abraham's wealth are listed in livestock (Job 1:3;42:12; Gen 12:16;13:2;30:43;32:5), the Chaldeans are portrayed as raiders (Job 1:17; as a people, they were not raiders later), the particular Hebrew word for 'piece of silver' in Job 42:11 is only used otherwise in conjunction with Jacob (Gen 33:19; Josh 24:32), and Job's age (Job 42:16) appears to be consistent with the patriarchs.
Although the Book of Job does not specifically quote any of the ten commandments, it does appear to allude to each one of them. This suggests that the ten commandments were not only known before Mount Sinai, but that they were possibly known outside of the descendants of Israel.
Commandment 1 "Blessed be the name of the LORD" (Job 1:21). "And to man He said, 'Behold, the fear of the Lord, that is wisdom, and to depart from evil is understanding' " (Job 28:28). "This also would be an iniquity deserving of judgement, For I would have denied God who is above" (Job 31:28). "The Job answered the LORD and said: 'I know that You can do everything, and that no purpose of Yours can be withheld from You' " (Job 42:1-2).
What is interesting about Job 28:28 is that Job said that this is what God said to man and there is no record of this being said in Genesis (which is the primary biblical book with information prior to the story of Job), thus this verse proves that God spoke to humankind prior to Moses in at least one way that was not recorded in Genesis. Thus this refutes the argument that none prior to Mount Sinai could have known what the commandments were! If there were no commandments in effect, how could denying God be an iniquity deserving of judgement?
Commandment 2 "If I have observed the sun when it shines, or the moon moving in its brightness, so that my heart has been secretly enticed, and my mouth has kissed my hand; This also would be an iniquity deserving of judgement, For I would have denied God who is above" (Job 31:27-28).
The observing of the sun and moon, whereby one is enticed, as well kissing one's own hand, are believed by most commentators to have been practices associated with idolatry.
Commandment 3 "It may be that my sons have sinned and cursed God in their hearts" (Job 1:5). "Blessed be the name of the LORD" (Job 1:21). "Curse God and die!" (Job 2:9). "In all this, Job did not sin with his lips" (Job 2:10).
The third commandment is perhaps more clearly shown in Job than in any other portion of the Bible prior to Mount Sinai (after Mount Sinai, God did tell the Israelites that the people who used to live in the land sinned by violating this command, Lev 18:21,27). It is clear that before Mount Sinai one could 'sin with his lips'.Commandment 4 "So they sat down with him on the ground seven days and seven nights, and no one spoke a word to him, for they saw that his grief was very great" (Job 2:13). "Is there not a time of hard service for man on the earth" (Job 7:1). "That the triumping of the wicked is short...Because he knows no quietness in his heart" (Job 20:5,20). "Now aquaint yourself with Him, and be at peace" (Job 22:21). "Where were you when I laid the foundations of the earth?" (Job 38:4).
Job 2:13 supports the concept that the week was being observed prior to Mount Sinai. It is consistent with the two accounts in Genesis that a week was used as a period of rejoicing (Gen 29:22,27-28) and grieving (Gen 50:10).Job 7:1 supports the concept of "six days shall you labor" (Ex 20:8) which is part of the fourth commandment. Job 20:20 supports the concept found in Heb 4:3-6 that those do who disobey "shall not enter My rest". Whereas Job 22:21 supports the related concept that "we who believed do enter that rest...There remains therefore a rest (Greek sabbitismos, 'a sabbath observance') for the people of God" (Heb 4:3,9).
In Job 38:4, God says He 'laid the foundations of the earth' which is similar to the concept in Ex 20:11 'For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them'. Thus in Job we see the nearly all the concepts of the fourth commandment.
Commandment 5 "His sons come to honor" (Job 14:21). "He who speaks flattery to his friends, even the eyes of his children will fail" (Job 17:5). "But the mighty man possessed the land, and the honorable man dwelt in it" (Job 22:8).
These verses support the concept that one is to be honorable and that the children are to become honorable, whereas the fifth commandment says to give honor (Ex 20:12) which implies that parents are to be honorable.
Commandment 6 "The murderer rises with the light; He kills the poor and needy; And in the night he's like a thief" (Job 24:14). "If I have eaten its fruit without money, or caused its owners to lose their lives; Then let thistles grow instead of wheat, and weeds instead of barley" (Job 31:39-40).
These scriptures clearly support the concept that Job and his companions considered murder to be wrong.
Commandment 7 "The eye of the adulterer waits for the twilight, saying, 'No eye will see me'; and he disguises his face" (Job 24:15). "I have made a covenant with my eyes; Why then should I look upon a young woman?" (Job 31:1). "If my heart has been enticed by a woman, or if I have lurked at my neighbor's door, then let my wife grind for another, and let others bow down over her. For that would be wickedness; Yes, it would be iniquity deserving of judgment. For that would be a fire that consumes to destruction, and would root out all my increase" (Job 31:9-12).
These scriptures clearly support the concept that Job and his companions knew adultery was prohibited and an 'iniquity deserving of judgement'.
Commandment 8 "Is not your wickedness great, and your iniquity without end? For you have taken pledges from your brother for no reason, and stripped the naked of their clothing" (Job 22:5-6). "And in the night he's like a thief" (Job 24:14). "If I have eaten its fruit without money, or caused its owners to lose their lives; Then let thistles grow instead of wheat, and weeds instead of barley" (Job 31:39-40).
These scriptures clearly support the concept that Job and his companions considered stealing to be wrong.
Commandment 9 "I would never lie to your face" (Job 6:28). "They conceive trouble and bring forth futility; Their womb prepares deceit" (Job 15:35). "Now if it is not so, who will prove me a liar and make my speech worth nothing?" (Job 24:25). "My lips will not speak wickedness, nor my tongue utter deceit" (Job 27:4). "Should I lie concerning my right?" (Job 34:6). "For truly my words are not false" (Job 36:4).
These scriptures clearly support the concept that Job and his companions considered 'bearing false witness' to be wrong.
Commandment 10 "And envy slays a simple one" (Job 5:2). "Why does your heart carry you away, and what do your eyes wink at, that you turn your spirit against God, and let such words go out of your mouth?" (Job 15:12-13). "They conceive trouble and bring forth futility" (Job 15:35). "I have made a covenant with my eyes; Why then should I look upon a young woman?" (Job 31:1). "If my heart has been enticed by a woman, or if I have lurked at my neighbor's door, then let my wife grind for another, and let others bow down over her. For that would be wickedness; Yes, it would be iniquity deserving of judgment. For that would be a fire that consumes to destruction, and would root out all my increase" (Job 31:9-12).
These scriptures clearly support the concept that Job and his companions considered covetousness (or evil desire) to be wrong. Since Paul wrote, "I would not have known sin except through the law. For I would not have known covetousness unless the law had said, 'You shall not covet.' " (Rom 7:7), it is clear that the law against covetousness must have been in effect prior to Mount Sinai.
"Sin is lawlessness" (I John 3:4) or as it says in the AV "trangression of the law". The terms sin, sinned, and sins are used 16 times in the the Book of Job (NKJ). How could there be sin if there was no law, since "sin is not imputed when there is no law?" (Rom 5:13). Job knew about God before the Book of Genesis was written, as he said, "I have heard of You by the hearing of the ear, but now my eye sees You" (Job 42:5). Elihu said, "Behold God is mighty...He also opens their ear to instruction, and commands that they turn from iniquity. If they obey and serve Him, they shall spend their days in prosperity, and their years in pleasures. But of they do not obey, they shall perish by the sword and they shall die [as one] without knowledge" (Job 36:5,10-12). If people in Job's day were not supposed to know about God's law, how could they obey Him? If those who disobey will perish like those that have no knowledge of God and His ways, then they must have had knowledge of God and His laws.
The Book of Job demonstrates that God has revealed information that is not listed in the Book of Genesis (Job 28:28;36:12;42:5). It also demonstrates that sin and God's ten commandment law were known prior to Mount Sinai.
P.S. Some have claimed that the ten commandments are not for Christians, for more information please check out Jesus Taught Each of the Ten Commandments and Were the Ten Commandments Nailed to the Crosss?
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B. Thiel, 2000