Exodus 21-24: These are the Judgments

by COGwriter

This article is part of a series covering the entire Book of Exodus,

We have three articles covering earlier chapters in the Book of Exodus.

Exodus and the Days of Unleavened Bread covers chapters 1-6, and parts of others.

Reasons, Proofs, and Ramifications of the Ten Plagues of Exodus covers chapters to 7-15 and parts of others.

Exodus 16-19 which covers all of those verses--here is a link to a related sermon: Exodus 16-19: Manna, Governance, and End Time Protection.

Exodus 20: The Ten Commandments which covers all the verses in that chapter: A related sermon is available: Exodus 20: The Ten Commandments.

Exodus 21

So, on to Exodus 21:

1 "Now these are the judgments which you shall set before them: (Exodus 21:1, NKJV throughout unless otherwise specified)

The old Radio Church of God taught:

When God brought Israel to the foot of Mt. Sinai, He gave the Ten Commandments to them. He allowed Moses to declare all the statutes and judgments to Israel (Exodus, chapters 20-24). These statutes and judgments MAGNIFY the Ten Commandments. (Hoeh H. Which Old Testament LAWS should we keep today? Good News, November 1957)

Before getting to specific ones, let's notice something that God said to Isaac:

4 And I will make your descendants multiply as the stars of heaven; I will give to your descendants all these lands; and in your seed all the nations of the earth shall be blessed; 5 because Abraham obeyed My voice and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws. (Genesis 26:4-5)

Here is also something that the old Worldwide Church of God taught:

Abraham kept the Ten Commandments. He also kept God's statutes and laws. What were these statutes and laws?

In addition to the broad principles of the Ten Commandments, God gave to the patriarchs statutes for the general well-being of the people, together with judgments for the protection of everyone's legal rights. Statutes are lesser expressions of a lawmaker, usually commanding or forbidding that certain things be done. Judgments are binding decisions of judges based on God's previously revealed law. These decisions are used to settle similar future disputes and to render a sentence or verdict.

In general the Ten Commandments apply to individual conduct, the statutes to national or Church affairs and the judgments to decisions rendered according to the principles of the Ten Commandments and the statutes. (Hoeh H. Which Laws in the Old Testament have Authority today? Good News, October-November 1983)

Back to Exodus:

2 If you buy a Hebrew servant, he shall serve six years; and in the seventh he shall go out free and pay nothing. 3 If he comes in by himself, he shall go out by himself; if he comes in married, then his wife shall go out with him.

So, the Hebrews had limits on slavery. This was somewhat used for what were called indentured servants in the Americas--which were basically Europeans who agreed to work for other Europeans in the Western Hemisphere to pay their passge to what was called the New World.

Back to Exodus:

4 If his master has given him a wife, and she has borne him sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he shall go out by himself. 5 But if the servant plainly says, 'I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,' 6 then his master shall bring him to the judges. He shall also bring him to the door, or to the doorpost, and his master shall pierce his ear with an awl; and he shall serve him forever.

Now, the slave should realize that if he accepted a wife, he would not be able to take her with him. So, hopefully, most either refused when offered or decided in advance that they wanted to remain slaves.

Back to Exodus:

7 "And if a man sells his daughter to be a female slave, she shall not go out as the male slaves do. 8 If she does not please her master, who has betrothed her to himself, then he shall let her be redeemed. He shall have no right to sell her to a foreign people, since he has dealt deceitfully with her.

7‘And when a man selleth his daughter for a handmaid, she doth not go out according to the going out of the men-servants; 8 if evil in the eyes of her lord, so that he hath not betrothed her, then he hath let her be ransomed; to a strange people he hath not power to sell her, in his dealing treacherously with her. (Youngs Literal Translation)

Back to Exodus:

9 And if he has betrothed her to his son, he shall deal with her according to the custom of daughters. 10 If he takes another wife, he shall not diminish her food, her clothing, and her marriage rights.

11 And if he does not do these three for her, then she shall go out free, without paying money.

While some had multiple wives, even though that was never God's intent, a husband had to treat all of his wives properly and not be biased against any.

Back to Exodus:

12 "He who strikes a man so that he dies shall surely be put to death.


13 However, if he did not lie in wait, but God delivered him into his hand, then I will appoint for you a place where he may flee.

Now, it was more complicated than what it looks like on the surface. Notice:

9 Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 10 "Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them: 'When you cross the Jordan into the land of Canaan, 11 then you shall appoint cities to be cities of refuge for you, that the manslayer who kills any person accidentally may flee there. 12 They shall be cities of refuge for you from the avenger, that the manslayer may not die until he stands before the congregation in judgment. 13 And of the cities which you give, you shall have six cities of refuge. 14 You shall appoint three cities on this side of the Jordan, and three cities you shall appoint in the land of Canaan, which will be cities of refuge. 15 These six cities shall be for refuge for the children of Israel, for the stranger, and for the sojourner among them, that anyone who kills a person accidentally may flee there.

16 'But if he strikes him with an iron implement, so that he dies, he is a murderer; the murderer shall surely be put to death. 17 And if he strikes him with a stone in the hand, by which one could die, and he does die, he is a murderer; the murderer shall surely be put to death. 18 Or if he strikes him with a wooden hand weapon, by which one could die, and he does die, he is a murderer; the murderer shall surely be put to death. 19 The avenger of blood himself shall put the murderer to death; when he meets him, he shall put him to death. 20 If he pushes him out of hatred or, while lying in wait, hurls something at him so that he dies, 21 or in enmity he strikes him with his hand so that he dies, the one who struck him shall surely be put to death. He is a murderer. The avenger of blood shall put the murderer to death when he meets him. (Numbers 35:9-21)

The penalty for killing someone, where on purpose or by accident was quite severe. This type of statute would encourage people to act less recklessly around others.

Continuing in Exodus:

14 "But if a man acts with premeditation against his neighbor, to kill him by treachery, you shall take him from My altar, that he may die.

15 "And he who strikes his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.

Continuing in Exodus:

16 "He who kidnaps a man and sells him, or if he is found in his hand, shall surely be put to death.

So, kidnapping is a biblically captial crime.

Continuing in Exodus:

17 "And he who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death.

So, we note here as well in verse 15 severe penalties for hitting or cursing one's parents. Let me add that verses 15 and 17 are part of the 613 regulations (called 613 Mitzvot) that certain Jews as well as Messianic Jews (see also Messianic Judaism Beliefs Differ from the Continuing Church of God) hold to.

We also have an article called: Which Laws were Superceded? Which Remain? as that is something many have wondered about.

18 "If men contend with each other, and one strikes the other with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but is confined to his bed, 19 if he rises again and walks about outside with his staff, then he who struck him shall be acquitted. He shall only pay for the loss of his time, and shall provide for him to be thoroughly healed.

Continuing in Exodus:

20 "And if a man beats his male or female servant with a rod, so that he dies under his hand, he shall surely be punished. 21 Notwithstanding, if he remains alive a day or two, he shall not be punished; for he is his property.

Now the NKJV gives the wrong impression here. Notice what the NIV teaches:

20 “Anyone who beats their male or female slave with a rod must be punished if the slave dies as a direct result, 21 but they are not to be punished if the slave recovers after a day or two, since the slave is their property. (Exodus 21:20-21, NIV)

Continuing in Exodus:

22 "If men fight, and hurt a woman with child, so that she gives birth prematurely, yet no harm follows, he shall surely be punished accordingly as the woman's husband imposes on him; and he shall pay as the judges determine. 23 But if any harm follows, then you shall give life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.

So, caution around pregnant women was advised. Anyway, when we see the judgment penalties applied to violating certain laws and statutes, essentially we that the punishment resembles the offense committed in kind and degree.

Continuing in Exodus:

26 "If a man strikes the eye of his male or female servant, and destroys it, he shall let him go free for the sake of his eye. 27 And if he knocks out the tooth of his male or female servant, he shall let him go free for the sake of his tooth.

If a slave can leave because an eye or tooth was knocked out, it is not fine that a master is not punished if a servant dies a few days after a beating, which is why I cited the NIV related to Exodus 21:20-21.

Continuing in Exodus 21:

28 "If an ox gores a man or a woman to death, then the ox shall surely be stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be acquitted. 29 But if the ox tended to thrust with its horn in times past, and it has been made known to his owner, and he has not kept it confined, so that it has killed a man or a woman, the ox shall be stoned and its owner also shall be put to death. 30 If there is imposed on him a sum of money, then he shall pay to redeem his life, whatever is imposed on him. 31 Whether it has gored a son or gored a daughter, according to this judgment it shall be done to him. 32 If the ox gores a male or female servant, he shall give to their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned.

So, notice that if you had a dangerous animal, you would be held responsible for its actions. Notice also that the owner also had to pay if his animal hurt his servants.

33 "And if a man opens a pit, or if a man digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or a donkey falls in it, 34 the owner of the pit shall make it good; he shall give money to their owner, but the dead animal shall be his.

So, this is a safety provision.

Continuing in Exodus 21:

35 "If one man's ox hurts another's, so that it dies, then they shall sell the live ox and divide the money from it; and the dead ox they shall also divide. 36 Or if it was known that the ox tended to thrust in time past, and its owner has not kept it confined, he shall surely pay ox for ox, and the dead animal shall be his own.

Exodus 22

Continuing in Exodus 22:

1 "If a man steals an ox or a sheep, and slaughters it or sells it, he shall restore five oxen for an ox and four sheep for a sheep.

This is very different than most of the world's systems. According to Exodus 22:1 the more you steal, the higher the multiple you have to pay back. This would discourage theft, particularly high value theft.

2 If the thief is found breaking in, and he is struck so that he dies, there shall be no guilt for his bloodshed. 3 If the sun has risen on him, there shall be guilt for his bloodshed. He should make full restitution; if he has nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft.

4 If the theft is certainly found alive in his hand, whether it is an ox or donkey or sheep, he shall restore double.

5 "If a man causes a field or vineyard to be grazed, and lets loose his animal, and it feeds in another man's field, he shall make restitution from the best of his own field and the best of his own vineyard.

The Bible teaches responsibility.

6 "If fire breaks out and catches in thorns, so that stacked grain, standing grain, or the field is consumed, he who kindled the fire shall surely make restitution.

7 "If a man delivers to his neighbor money or articles to keep, and it is stolen out of the man's house, if the thief is found, he shall pay double. 8 If the thief is not found, then the master of the house shall be brought to the judges to see whether he has put his hand into his neighbor's goods.

9 "For any kind of trespass, whether it concerns an ox, a donkey, a sheep, or clothing, or for any kind of lost thing which another claims to be his, the cause of both parties shall come before the judges; and whomever the judges condemn shall pay double to his neighbor. 10 If a man delivers to his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep, and it dies, is hurt, or driven away, no one seeing it, 11 then an oath of the Lord shall be between them both, that he has not put his hand into his neighbor's goods; and the owner of it shall accept that, and he shall not make it good. 12 But if, in fact, it is stolen from him, he shall make restitution to the owner of it. 13 If it is torn to pieces by a beast, then he shall bring it as evidence, and he shall not make good what was torn.

14 "And if a man borrows anything from his neighbor, and it becomes injured or dies, the owner of it not being with it, he shall surely make it good. 15 If its owner was with it, he shall not make it good; if it was hired, it came for its hire.

Notice verse 15 from the NIV as that seems a bit clearer:

15 But if the owner is with the animal, the borrower will not have to pay. If the animal was hired, the money paid for the hire covers the loss. (Exodus 22:15, NIV)

Back to Exodus 22:

16 "If a man entices a virgin who is not betrothed, and lies with her, he shall surely pay the bride-price for her to be his wife. 17 If her father utterly refuses to give her to him, he shall pay money according to the bride-price of virgins.

The Bible clearly is opposed to casual sexual encounters, like 'one-night-stands.'

Continuing in Exodus 22:

18 "You shall not permit a sorceress to live.

The Bible strongly opposes witchcraft.

Continuing in Exodus 22:

19 "Whoever lies with an animal shall surely be put to death.

We will likely see more promotions of forms of bestiality in the future.

Continuing in Exodus 22:

20 "He who sacrifices to any god, except to the Lord only, he shall be utterly destroyed.

Now, the New Testament also calls against combining pagan worship with the worship of the true God as the Apostle Paul wrote:

19 What am I saying then? That an idol is anything, or what is offered to idols is anything? 20 Rather, that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice they sacrifice to demons and not to God, and I do not want you to have fellowship with demons. 21 You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons; you cannot partake of the Lord's table and of the table of demons. 22 Or do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than He? (1 Corinthians 10:19-22)

Continuing in Exodus 22:

21 "You shall neither mistreat a stranger nor oppress him, for you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

In addition to trying to treat people properly, this reminds me how this world seems to take an opposite view. If you ever look at hotel/motel taxes, you see how much higher those taxes are in much of the USA for example, than regular sales taxes.

Continuing in Exodus 22:

22 "You shall not afflict any widow or fatherless child. 23 If you afflict them in any way, and they cry at all to Me, I will surely hear their cry; 24 and My wrath will become hot, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives shall be widows, and your children fatherless.

The prophet Zechariah wrote:

8 Then the word of the Lord came to Zechariah, saying, 9 "Thus says the Lord of hosts:

'Execute true justice,
Show mercy and compassion
Everyone to his brother.
10 Do not oppress the widow or the fatherless,
The alien or the poor.
Let none of you plan evil in his heart
Against his brother.' (Zechariah 7:8-10)

James wrote:

27 Pure and undefiled religion before God and the Father is this: to visit orphans and widows in their trouble, and to keep oneself unspotted from the world. (James 1:27)

Not only are Christians not to afflict widows and orphans, they should help them.

Back to Exodus 22:

25 "If you lend money to any of My people who are poor among you, you shall not be like a moneylender to him; you shall not charge him interest.

"Loan-sharking" to the poor was not allowed. While there are modern "usury laws," the poor are often taken advantage of when it comes to interest rates, etc.

Continuing in Exodus 22:

26 If you ever take your neighbor's garment as a pledge, you shall return it to him before the sun goes down. 27 For that is his only covering, it is his garment for his skin. What will he sleep in? And it will be that when he cries to Me, I will hear, for I am gracious.

Clothes and blankets were quite expensive back then. So much so, they could be collateral for loans. Lenders could hold collateral, but were not to make the borrower suffer excessively because of it.

Continuing in Exodus 22:

28 "You shall not revile God, nor curse a ruler of your people.

The first part of the above is related to the third commandment, but this second part is essentially an expansion of it. This was to help stability and proper governance.

Furthermore, this also had kind of a personal safety factor built in.


Consider the following:

20 Do not curse the king, even in your thought;
Do not curse the rich, even in your bedroom;
For a bird of the air may carry your voice,
And a bird in flight may tell the matter. (Ecclesiastes 10:20)

In those days, cursing a ruler could get you killed. Such will definitely happen in the future per Revelation 13.

Continuing in Exodus 22:

29 "You shall not delay to offer the first of your ripe produce and your juices. The firstborn of your sons you shall give to Me. 30 Likewise you shall do with your oxen and your sheep. It shall be with its mother seven days; on the eighth day you shall give it to Me.

Some delay paying tithes and offerings. The Bible essentially says that should not be done (see also Tithing Questions and Some Answers).

Continuing in Exodus 22:

31 "And you shall be holy men to Me: you shall not eat meat torn by beasts in the field; you shall throw it to the dogs.

So, no, we do not eat roadkill or other potentially diseased dead animals we may encounter. As far as dogs themselves go, they have different digestive abilities than humans and can normally handle eating that type of flesh.

Notice something that the New Testament teaches:

13 Therefore gird up the loins of your mind, be sober, and rest your hope fully upon the grace that is to be brought to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ; 14 as obedient children, not conforming yourselves to the former lusts, as in your ignorance; 15 but as He who called you is holy, you also be holy in all your conduct, 16 because it is written, "Be holy, for I am holy." (1 Peter 1:13-16)

Notice that we are not to lust after things and be holy.

But many would be surprised to learn that this comes from a part of the Old Testament related to not eating unclean animals:

41 'And every creeping thing that creeps on the earth shall be an abomination. It shall not be eaten. 42 Whatever crawls on its belly, whatever goes on all fours, or whatever has many feet among all creeping things that creep on the earth — these you shall not eat, for they are an abomination. 43 You shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creeps; nor shall you make yourselves unclean with them, lest you be defiled by them. 44 For I am the Lord your God. You shall therefore consecrate yourselves, and you shall be holy; for I am holy. Neither shall you defile yourselves with any creeping thing that creeps on the earth. 45 For I am the Lord who brings you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God. You shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.

46 'This is the law of the animals and the birds and every living creature that moves in the waters, and of every creature that creeps on the earth, 47 to distinguish between the unclean and the clean, and between the animal that may be eaten and the animal that may not be eaten.'" (Leviticus 11:41-47)

Early Christians would have realized this, and this is one reason why they did not eat biblically unclean animals (see also The New Testament Church, History, and Unclean Meats).

Chapter 23

Now to chapter 23:

1 "You shall not circulate a false report. Do not put your hand with the wicked to be an unrighteous witness.

So, we see an earlier admonition about fake news. In modern times, not only would this include speaking or texting wrong information, but also Facebook and other social media posts.


2 You shall not follow a crowd to do evil; nor shall you testify in a dispute so as to turn aside after many to pervert justice. 3 You shall not show partiality to a poor man in his dispute.

Majority will does not override right and wrong. Also, you are not to be biased for or against the rich or the poor.

Justice, as some statues attempt to depict it, is supposed to be blind--based on facts, not the person's standing.


4 "If you meet your enemy's ox or his donkey going astray, you shall surely bring it back to him again. 5 If you see the donkey of one who hates you lying under its burden, and you would refrain from helping it, you shall surely help him with it.

Notice something from Leviticus:

17 'You shall not hate your brother in your heart. You shall surely rebuke your neighbor, and not bear sin because of him. 18 You shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the Lord. 19 'You shall keep My statutes. (Leviticus 19:17-19a)

Jesus essentially taught the same and expanded it::

43 "You have heard that it was said, 'You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' 44 But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you, 45 that you may be sons of your Father in heaven; for He makes His sun rise on the evil and on the good, and sends rain on the just and on the unjust. 46 For if you love those who love you, what reward have you? Do not even the tax collectors do the same? 47 And if you greet your brethren only, what do you do more than others? Do not even the tax collectors do so? 48 Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect. (Matthew 5:43-48)

Back to Exodus 23:

6 "You shall not pervert the judgment of your poor in his dispute. 7 Keep yourself far from a false matter; do not kill the innocent and righteous. For I will not justify the wicked. 8 And you shall take no bribe, for a bribe blinds the discerning and perverts the words of the righteous.

Again, justice is to be the goal, not being biased. The not killing the innocent is consistent with being against abortion (see also Abortion, the Bible, and a Woman's Right to Choose).


9 "Also you shall not oppress a stranger, for you know the heart of a stranger, because you were strangers in the land of Egypt.

That lines up with what has been called the 'golden rule':

11 If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give good things to those who ask Him! 12 Therefore, whatever you want men to do to you, do also to them, for this is the Law and the Prophets. (Matthew 7:11-12)

Back to Exodus 23:

10 "Six years you shall sow your land and gather in its produce, 11 but the seventh year you shall let it rest and lie fallow, that the poor of your people may eat; and what they leave, the beasts of the field may eat. In like manner you shall do with your vineyard and your olive grove.

This is called the land sabbath. The old Worldwide Church of God taught:

The biblical land Sabbath anciently occurred once every seven years. It held the promise of not only giving the land (and the farmer) a rest, but the special blessing of an increase in harvests on the sixth year (Lev. 25:2-4, 20-21). By letting his land lie fallow after planting, for example, a leguminous cover crop, the farmer would be allowing nature to begin to restore the humus, as well as other nutrients, in the soil naturally. This ancient biblical law, when properly administered, simply amounts to sound land management. (Talylor DC. And Now U.S. FARMERS FACE A NEW CRISIS. Plain Truth, October-November 1982)

Back to Exodus 23:

12 Six days you shall do your work, and on the seventh day you shall rest, that your ox and your donkey may rest, and the son of your female servant and the stranger may be refreshed.

So, the Sabbath command is again repeated.

Back to Exodus 23:

13 "And in all that I have said to you, be circumspect and make no mention of the name of other gods, nor let it be heard from your mouth.

So, this looks like an expansion of the first, second, and third commandments.

Back to Exodus 23:

14 "Three times you shall keep a feast to Me in the year: 15 You shall keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread (you shall eat unleavened bread seven days, as I commanded you, at the time appointed in the month of Abib, for in it you came out of Egypt; none shall appear before Me empty); 16 and the Feast of Harvest, the firstfruits of your labors which you have sown in the field; and the Feast of Ingathering at the end of the year, when you have gathered in the fruit of your labors from the field.
17 "Three times in the year all your males shall appear before the Lord God.

All the Holy Days are discussed again in Leviticus 23. Plus, also with additional details in the free online booklet: Should You Keep God's Holy Days or Demonic Holidays?

Back to Exodus 23:

18 "You shall not offer the blood of My sacrifice with leavened bread; nor shall the fat of My sacrifice remain until morning.

Now, the above is an ordinance that would not tend to affect us as Christians do not have the need for blood sacrifices:

1 For the law, having a shadow of the good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with these same sacrifices, which they offer continually year by year, make those who approach perfect. 2 For then would they not have ceased to be offered? For the worshipers, once purified, would have had no more consciousness of sins. 3 But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins every year. 4 For it is not possible that the blood of bulls and goats could take away sins.

5 Therefore, when He came into the world, He said:

"Sacrifice and offering You did not desire,
But a body You have prepared for Me.
6 In burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin
You had no pleasure.
7 Then I said, 'Behold, I have come —
In the volume of the book it is written of Me —
To do Your will, O God.'" (Hebrews 10:1-7)

Back to Exodus 23:

19 The first of the firstfruits of your land you shall bring into the house of the Lord your God.

Christians are a type of firstfruits. But we do give tithes and offerings (see also Tithing Questions and Some Answers).

Continuing in verse 19:

You shall not boil a young goat in its mother's milk.

There's controversy regarding this one. The literal word in verse 19 is "to seethe." It literally reads: "Thou shalt not seethe a kid on his mother's milk." Some believe this is because God doesn't want a nursing goat to be taken from its mother or else the mother may feel pain by not being milked.

From this, strict Orthodox Jews will not have meat and dairy products together (it is number 163 of their 613 rules). But the Bible does not make that requirement--only that a baby goat should not be boiled/seethed in its mother's milk.

Continuing, God makes a promise:

20 "Behold, I send an Angel before you to keep you in the way and to bring you into the place which I have prepared. 21 Beware of Him and obey His voice; do not provoke Him, for He will not pardon your transgressions; for My name is in Him. 22 But if you indeed obey His voice and do all that I speak, then I will be an enemy to your enemies and an adversary to your adversaries. 23 For My Angel will go before you and bring you in to the Amorites and the Hittites and the Perizzites and the Canaanites and the Hivites and the Jebusites; and I will cut them off.

Continuing God makes a warning:

24 You shall not bow down to their gods, nor serve them, nor do according to their works; but you shall utterly overthrow them and completely break down their sacred pillars.

So, the second commandment is referred to.

Continuing in Exodus 23, God mentions a requirement and makes several promises:

25 "So you shall serve the Lord your God, and He will bless your bread and your water. And I will take sickness away from the midst of you. 26 No one shall suffer miscarriage or be barren in your land; I will fulfill the number of your days.

27 "I will send My fear before you, I will cause confusion among all the people to whom you come, and will make all your enemies turn their backs to you. 28 And I will send hornets before you, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite from before you. 29 I will not drive them out from before you in one year, lest the land become desolate and the beasts of the field become too numerous for you. 30 Little by little I will drive them out from before you, until you have increased, and you inherit the land. 31 And I will set your bounds from the Red Sea to the sea, Philistia, and from the desert to the River. For I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand, and you shall drive them out before you. 32 You shall make no covenant with them, nor with their gods. 33 They shall not dwell in your land, lest they make you sin against Me. For if you serve their gods, it will surely be a snare to you."

Even today, many think that God needs to do things quicker for them, but that is not what is always best.

Consider that the New Testament teaches:

28 And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose. 29 For whom He foreknew, He also predestined to be conformed to the image of His Son, that He might be the firstborn among many brethren. (Romans 8:28-29)

1 Moreover, brethren, I do not want you to be unaware that all our fathers were under the cloud, all passed through the sea, 2 all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, 3 all ate the same spiritual food, 4 and all drank the same spiritual drink. For they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them, and that Rock was Christ. 5 But with most of them God was not well pleased, for their bodies were scattered in the wilderness.

6 Now these things became our examples, to the intent that we should not lust after evil things as they also lusted. 7 And do not become idolaters as were some of them. As it is written, "The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play." 8 Nor let us commit sexual immorality, as some of them did, and in one day twenty-three thousand fell; 9 nor let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed by serpents; 10 nor complain, as some of them also complained, and were destroyed by the destroyer. 11 Now all these things happened to them as examples, and they were written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages have come.

12 Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he fall. 13 No temptation has overtaken you except such as is common to man; but God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able, but with the temptation will also make the way of escape, that you may be able to bear it. (1 Corinthians 10:1-13)

Chapter 24

Now to chapter 24 of Exodus:

1 Now He said to Moses, "Come up to the Lord, you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, and worship from afar. 2 And Moses alone shall come near the Lord, but they shall not come near; nor shall the people go up with him."

3 So Moses came and told the people all the words of the Lord and all the judgments. And all the people answered with one voice and said, "All the words which the Lord has said we will do."

So, the people agreed to all the judgments.

Now notice the first part of the next verse:

4 And Moses wrote all the words of the Lord.

Critics have claimed that Moses could not have written the Old Testament for many reasons, including what they claimed was the non-existence of the Hebrew language.

Now, the Bible shows that Moses was raised in the royal household in Egypt (Exodus 2). This means he would have learned hieroglyphics.

Even Wikipedia, which calls the exodus of the children out of Egypt a "founding myth" admits the following:

It is believed that the original shapes of the script go back to Egyptian hieroglyphs, (Hebrew Language, Wikipedia, retrieved 03/2919)

Dr. Doug Petrovich, author of, The World’s Oldest Alphabet: Hebrew As The Language Of The Proto-Consonantal Script, was interviewed, which I watched (http://www.biblearchaeology.org/post/2017/01/08/ABR-Associate-Dr-Doug-Petrovich-Reveals-Ancient-Moses-Inscription.aspx?gclid=EAIaIQobChMIiuHf2Iq-4AIVlYxpCh1SMwScEAAYASAAEgLtqPD_BwE#Article) claims, and shows various artifacts, the connections between Hebrew letters and Egyptian hieroglyphics indicates that the Hebrew alphabet was developed from Egyptian hieroglyphics. Presuming this is the case, this supports the view that the Hebrews were in Egypt for centuries.

According to Dr. Petrovich’s translation of certain inscriptions, one dating to 1842 BC., includes the phrase, "Hebrews of Bethel, the beloved." This is quite interesting as the Israelites needed to be in Egypt by 1876 BC, Why? Because Exodus 12:40 says that the children of Israel were in Egypt 430 years, so if the Exodus was 1446 BC this would point to an arrival of 1876 B.C. So having evidence pointing to the Israelites being there 34 years later fits.

He also said that there were three other inscriptions naming three biblical people These, he said, were Asenath, the wife of Joseph (Genesis 41:45), Ahisamach, the father of one of the craftsmen who would build the Tabernacle (Exodus 35:34), and Moses.

Perhaps, the most historically exciting inscription would be the one which names Moses. Dr. Petrovich says that this dates to 1446 BC, a possible year of the Exodus. That inscription reads,

"Our bound servitude had lingered, Moshe then provoked astonishment."

Moses is Moshe in Hebrew. Near that is an inscription that talks about a "year of astonishment," which is consistent with the ten plagues, etc. recorded in the Book of Exodus. So, although secular scholars seem disinterested, there appears to be much evidence that they overlook or overly discount.

The Apostle Paul wrote of those:

22 Professing to be wise, they became fools, (Romans 1:22)

Back to Exodus:

4 ... And he rose early in the morning, and built an altar at the foot of the mountain, and twelve pillars according to the twelve tribes of Israel. 5 Then he sent young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt offerings and sacrificed peace offerings of oxen to the Lord. 6 And Moses took half the blood and put it in basins, and half the blood he sprinkled on the altar. 7 Then he took the Book of the Covenant and read in the hearing of the people. And they said, "All that the Lord has said we will do, and be obedient." 8 And Moses took the blood, sprinkled it on the people, and said, "This is the blood of the covenant which the Lord has made with you according to all these words."

Again the people agreed. When you were baptized you agreed to accept Jesus as Lord. Are you living up to your part of the agreement?

Back to Exodus 24:

9 Then Moses went up, also Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, 10 and they saw the God of Israel. And there was under His feet as it were a paved work of sapphire stone, and it was like the very heavens in its clarity. 11 But on the nobles of the children of Israel He did not lay His hand. So they saw God, and they ate and drank.

12 Then the Lord said to Moses, "Come up to Me on the mountain and be there; and I will give you tablets of stone, and the law and commandments which I have written, that you may teach them."

13 So Moses arose with his assistant Joshua, and Moses went up to the mountain of God. 14 And he said to the elders, "Wait here for us until we come back to you. Indeed, Aaron and Hur are with you. If any man has a difficulty, let him go to them." 15 Then Moses went up into the mountain, and a cloud covered the mountain.

16 Now the glory of the Lord rested on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days. And on the seventh day He called to Moses out of the midst of the cloud. 17 The sight of the glory of the Lord was like a consuming fire on the top of the mountain in the eyes of the children of Israel. 18 So Moses went into the midst of the cloud and went up into the mountain. And Moses was on the mountain forty days and forty nights.

Can you wait? Moses was on the mountain too long as far as the people were concerned. But that is how long God wanted him there.

Might God want you to wait for something longer than you or others think?

Here is a link to a related sermon: Exodus 21-24: Judgments.

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Thiel B. Exodus 21-24: These are the Judgments. COGwriter (c) 2019 http://www.cogwriter.com/exodus21-judgments.htm 2019 0330